Original HRC document


Document Type: Final Report

Date: 2014 Aug

Session: 27th Regular Session (2014 Sep)

Agenda Item:

GE.14-14616 (E)


Human Rights Council Twenty-seventh session Agenda items 3 and 5 Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development

Human rights bodies and mechanisms

Progress report of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee on the study on the possibilities of using sport and the Olympic ideal to promote human rights*

* The present document was only slightly edited owing to its late submission.

Contents Paragraphs Page

I. Mandate on promoting human rights through sport and the Olympic ideal............ 1–4 3

II. General outline of the study .................................................................................... 5–88 3

A. Introduction and objectives ............................................................................ 5–12 3 B. Legal and social framework ........................................................................... 13–18 5

C. Role of different types of sporting events....................................................... 19–26 6

D. Instrumental significance of education, training and capacity-building in sport ............................................................................... 27–31 8

E. Sport as a tool for advancing civil society...................................................... 32–33 8

F. Sport and combating all forms of discrimination and racism ......................... 34–39 9

G. Business, public-private partnerships in human rights and sport.................... 40–41 10

H. Incorporating sport to conflict-prevention activities and peacebuilding......... 42–46 10

I. Media, sport and human rights ....................................................................... 47–53 11

J. Sport and development, in particular on the post-2015 development agenda 54–60 13

K. Best practices, national experiences and models to follow............................. 61–73 14

L. Challenges – exploring the complexities of using sport to promote human rights, preventing human rights abuses and detrimental practices related to sport ................................................................................. 74–88 17

III. Recommendations................................................................................................... 20

A. National legislation and executive practice .................................................... 20

B. Programme support ........................................................................................ 21

C. Fighting against discriminatory practices in sport .......................................... 23

D. Media.............................................................................................................. 23

E. Education........................................................................................................ 23

I. Mandate on promoting human rights through sport and the Olympic ideal 1. In its resolution 24/1, the Human Rights Council requested the Advisory Committee to prepare a study on the possibilities of using sport and the Olympic ideal to promote human rights for all and to strengthen universal respect for them, bearing in mind both the value of relevant principles enshrined in the Olympic Charter and the value of good sporting example, and to present a progress report thereon to the Council before its twenty- seventh session.

2. Also in that resolution, the Council requested the Committee to seek the views and input of States Members of the United Nations, international and regional organizations, national human rights institutions, civil society organizations and other relevant stakeholders.

3. The Advisory Committee designated, at its twelfth session, in February 2014 a drafting group1 to be in charge of the preparation of the study. The drafting group submitted a draft progress report to the Committee before its thirteenth session, with a view to its being submitted it to the Council in September 2014.

4. In accordance with Council resolution 24/1, the drafting group prepared a questionnaire, which was sent in March 2014 to all Member States, international and regional organizations, national human rights institutions, civil society organizations and other relevant stakeholders. As of August 2014, responses had been received from 22 States (Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Chile, China, Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Greece, Guatemala, Mauritania, Myanmar, Peru, Qatar, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Spain and Tunisia), 5 national human rights institutions, 8 non-governmental organizations and civil society representatives, an international organization and a special procedure mandate-holder. The Committee intends to seek further contributions on the issue and to send a reminder to those who have not yet responded.

II. General outline of the study

A. Introduction and objectives 5. The purpose of the present study is to help stakeholders assess the general factors relating to modern human rights policy in sport and provide some insights for its development and improvement in a coherent, comprehensive and systematic manner. Widening the possibilities of using sport and the Olympic ideal to promote and to strengthen universal respect for human rights for all requires sustained efforts based on the following considerations.

6. Sport plays a significant role and represents an expanding portion of among human activity. It stand for a strong will to overcome the limitations of human abilities, a desire for self-realization aimed at cultivating our fullest potential, and a way of learning to communicate and achieve harmony through fair play.

1 The drafting group is composed of Mr. Al Faihani, Mr. Coriolano, Mr. Lebedev (Rapporteur) and

Mr. Zhang.

7. The values, purposes and mission of sport in the modern globalized world are multifaceted and multidisciplinary. Sport is a multidimensional cultural activity for all as it is a physical group and leisure activity which enriches our lives.2 Sport has a broad scope: it includes physical exercise and is also a tool to improve lifestyle, provide employment opportunities, and promote peace, development, respect and anti-racism. Taken together, these elements can generate outstanding results and outcomes. If sport is used in the right way it can help build a generation and environment that is based on respect and cooperation, thereby strengthening respect for human rights3 and promoting human rights for all.

8. Sport brings new opportunities and potential for individuals, communities and States. It expands global commitments in strengthening physical, mental and emotional health, social welfare and cohesion, promoting camaraderie, physical prowess, team cooperation, solidarity, adherence to standards and rules of the game, with an emphasis on participation, equality, shared humanity, harmony and generosity, preventing to impose individual supremacy on others in cultural everyday life, leisure and sport, raising awareness and understanding of human rights. Sport and the Olympic ideal can also be a means to advance the cause of peace, promote development and combat all forms of discrimination. Sport is important in promoting human rights worldwide through interaction between different people and races. It unites many people on one issue irrespective of race, religion, and background. Discrimination could wither away with sport because sport teaches people co-operation, coordination and respect for others. In sport people from different cultures have the opportunity to work together in a team spirit. The universality of sport and Olympic ideals can educate people with regard to the values of respect, diversity, tolerance and fairness and serve as a means to combat all forms of discrimination and promote a coherent society.

9. Sport is a critical part of a strong, healthy, confident community, and is described by UNESCO as a “fundamental right for all”.4 The values of sport – including integrity, teamwork, excellence, respect, tolerance, fair play and friendship – mean that it provides an excellent context in which young people can learn and grow. Hence, the values of the Olympic Movement and human rights go hand in hand. Sport and all those involved in sport events are directly dealing with the Olympic values and are therefore key in promoting, educating and sensitizing people about the importance of these values.5 Moreover, sports should be used as channel to promote equality of education, health, gender and ethnic groups as well as to protect the rights of persons with disabilities and the environment.6

10. The right to play sport has undergone a remarkable conceptual development in recent years and now reflects a desire to conduct a healthy way of life as part of human dignity. This right is rooted in different other rights and concepts, first of all in the rights for health, participation in cultural life and development. It must be guaranteed to all, children, youth, elderly, women, the rich, the poor and people with special needs.7 It is evident that in sports competitions stakeholders cannot interfere in the winning of medals, and the fact that prizes are achieved in an individual capacity, and not as result of State interference, makes us consider the potential of the individual as a creative and dignified actor in him or herself,

2 The Charter on Human Rights in Sport. South Korea. Preamble. p. 1.

3 Response of Bahrain.

4 See www.un.org/wcm/content/site/sport/home/sport.

5 Response of France.

6 Response of China.

7 Response of Saudi Arabia.

beyond the State as a whole. This enhances the protection of individual rights and freedoms as a guarantee for future social progress.8

11. It is important to implement sport freedom, the right to play sport, beyond politics seeking to sustain an important work to create a better world through sport, physical activity and play. The cohesion and neutrality of the sport movement are important factors for achieving Olympic ideals and values. Sport events should not be used to demonstrate political protests or boycotts as measures of political pressure. Not without reason it becomes promising to promote the ideals of the Olympic Truce in advance of the Games of the Olympiads and the Paralympic Games, and recognize the importance of constructive partnerships with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee, the International Olympic Truce Centre, hosts of the Games, the United Nations and other Member States in supporting the implementation of resolutions on the Olympic Truce. Because sports promote rapprochement and help reduce the levels of violence, recreational programmes and sports games have become a tacit truce in some regions surged by armed conflicts.9

12. The following evaluations, observations and recommendations provide a review and examination of the main areas where the continuing integration of a human rights approach into the practice of sport and the implementation of the Olympic ideal seems potentially the most beneficial or fruitful in the short-run to promote and to strengthen universal respect for human rights for all.

B. Legal and social framework

13. Placing sport at the service of the harmonious development of humankind, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity is embedded in the Olympic Charter and as such forms part of the fundamental principles of IOC. For the purposes of the present study the following provision of the Olympic Charter has core significance: “The practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility to practice sport, without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play”.10

14. IOC and the constituents of the Olympic Movement at large devote a growing quantity of resources to areas of development through sport, helping to promote youth, formal education, culture, healthy lifestyles, sustainability, gender equality, understanding among peoples and peace. Their projects, beyond granting vulnerable communities their right to leisure, support human rights at large. Countless initiatives with this objective and scope have been implemented by IOC and relevant partners over the last two decades.11 Over the last years, the collaboration between UN and the Olympic Movement was further strengthened.12 Obviously, sport as a form of human activities should be construed and practiced under general human rights provisions and specific conventions.

15. A pivotal role of Olympic Charter is complemented by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and different UN basic guiding documents and resolutions. General Assembly resolution 67/17 of 28 November 2012 recalls its resolutions 58/5 of 3 November 2003, 59/10 of 27 October 2004, its decision to proclaim 2005 the International

8 Response of Ignasi Grau.

9 Response of Colombia.

10 Art. 4 the Olympic Charter, Edition IOC, Lausanne/Switzerland, September 2013.

11 Response of IOC.

12 UNOSDP ANNUAL REPORT 2012 covering 1 January through 31 December 2012.

Year for Sport and Physical Education, to strengthen sport as a means to promote education, health, development and peace, and its resolutions 60/1 of 16 September 2005, 60/9 of 3 November 2005, 61/10 of 3 November 2006, 62/271 of 23 July 2008, 63/135 of 11 December 2008 and 65/4 of 18 October 2010.

16. The report of the Secretary-General entitled “Sport for development and peace: mainstreaming a versatile instrument” reviews the programmes and initiatives implemented by UN Members States , UN funds and programmes, specialized agencies and other partners, using sport as a tool for development and peace. The UN General Assembly recognized the potential of sport to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), noting that sport has the potential, as declared in the 2005 World Summit Outcome, to foster peace and development and to contribute to an atmosphere of tolerance and understanding, and reaffirming that sport is a tool for education that can promote cooperation, solidarity, social inclusion and health at the local, national and international levels, as declared in the outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the GA on the MDGs. Moreover, numerous UN resolutions and reports appeal to advance peace, development, diversity, tolerance, fairness, mutual respect, human understanding, dialogue, reconciliation, competition spirit, gender equality, combating discrimination, racism, social exclusion and marginalization. Member States are for instance requested to create more opportunities for persons with disabilities, to contribute to expansion of mass sport activities, to support high performance in sporting events, to engage more children and young persons, women and girls and older persons in sport and to provide access facilitation and barriers-free environment.

17. It is worth outlining the regional scope of developing legal grounds for promoting human rights through sport and the Olympic ideal. A good example is the March 2013 Commonwealth Charter, which outlines the Commonwealth’s core values and aspirations. Building on previous communiqués and declarations (such as the Harare Declaration in 1991), the Charter demonstrates the commitment of Commonwealth countries to a defined set of shared beliefs.13

18. Observations of States and independent experts underpinned the work on this study to a major extent. It is furthermore essential to stress the tremendous contribution, including in terms of awareness raising, of scientific community that continues to provide vibrant critical evaluations, sometimes controversial and disputable, on all features of sport’s proliferation in society, to identify advantages and shortcomings of sporting management, to suggest ways and means of improvement in the interest of promoting human rights and, at the end, wellbeing of all. For many years governments have kept academics at arm’s length, academic knowledge was geared mostly to the sport community, the identification of talent and the production of medals-industrial complex.14 It appears that the increasing number of impressive academic multidisciplinary sport research leads to changing this situation, which deserves special attention, but is beyond the scope of this study.

C. Role of different types of sporting events

19. Sporting events can help promote awareness and understanding of human rights principles through interaction between different people and cultures. It is important to identify synergies and complementarities between sport and human rights that would pinpoint the relations between them, so as to promote the values of diversity, tolerance and

13 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-commonwealth-charter.

14 J. Maguire. Reflections on Process Sociology and Sport. “Walking the Line”. Series Sport in the

global society–Contemporary perspectives. Oxon. 2013. p. 2.

fairness and to combat all forms of discrimination. It is also important to identify the obstacles to promoting human rights faced in that regard.

20. Sport and Olympic events encourage people from different backgrounds to promote certain games and can thus bring people closer together and make them familiar with each other. The spirit of mutual promotion of sports would eventually decrease prejudice, and as many people would join in this, disseminate such spirit further. This would create an environment that is conducive to the promotion of their rights.

21. The following categories of sports events may be distinguished: local, national, regional, continental, international and global as well as special targeted programmes. The categorization is functional and depends on the commitments and objectives of the organizers who decide upon the concrete requirements for each category.

22. As a result of the staging of multiple sports events in different regions of a country, the regions have benefited from the construction of sports venues, hotels, access roads, and especially from the development of the know-how, the tourism industry and the overall impact on the economy.15 Countries hosting events have to ensure equality among the participating countries, and participants have to treat all competitors equally.16

23. Global or mega sporting events like the Olympics or World Cups capture special national and international attention due to their advancing human rights role and well- known wider economic, social and cultural agenda. Global dimension and increasing ratings of major competitions let us assume that modern sport becomes universal facilitator of general humanitarian ideas and approaches addressed to all mankind.17 From a human rights perspective, recent controversies about the balance between related opportunities and risks have renewed fundamental questions about the responsibilities of host governments, and international governing bodies sports that set the terms for staging this kind of events.18 A scholar discourse continues on failures to strike a fair balance between celebrating humanity and market manipulation.19

24. Major sporting events can be used as a catalyst to implement child protective strategies and to strengthen cooperation among various stakeholders to mitigate potential harm. In this respect, there is a need to involve and build partnerships with key stakeholders, such as IOC, host countries, and the business sector. It is necessary to include a human rights (including children’s rights) impact assessment in the bidding criteria of major sport organizers.20 In this regard, the “Children Win Project” of ECPAT and Terre des Hommes calls for a revision of bidding processes of major sport organizers, to include at all stages assessment, risk mitigation measures, and reinforcement of positive effects.21

15 Response of Colombia.

16 Response of Qatar.

17 Response of Russian Federation.

18 Striving for Excellence: Mega-Sporting Events and Human Rights. Institute for Human Rights and

Business, October 2013, London.

19 J. Maguire. Olympic Legacies in the OIC’s “Celebrate Humanity” campaign: Ancient or Modern?;

J.A.Mangan. Prologue: Guarantees of Global Goodwill: Post-Olympic Legacies – Too Many Limping White Elephants? In Olympic Legacies: Intended and Unintended. London. 2010.

20 Response of Najat Maalla M’jid, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and

child pornography.

21 Response of ECPAT and Terre Des Hommes.

25. Local, national and regional sports events could include special targeted competitions for ethnic sport strands designed to demonstrate different ethnic traditions, practices and customs.22

26. Stakeholders, and in particular the organizers of mass sports events, should use and leverage such events to promote and support sport for development and peace initiatives.23

D. Instrumental significance of education, training and capacity-building in sport

27. Sport and Olympic values should be the most privileged channel to spread the Olympic ideal among citizens and to educate them to respect human rights.24 If the practice of sport is a human right, education programmes to support that right, need to be given due prominence in curriculum planning. Through such programmes can the spirit of friendship, mutual respect, solidarity and fair play be promoted, learned and embedded into individuals and their communities.25

28. Physical activity and sports are employed when training children and youth in social skills and in the acquisition of positive attitudes and moral values. Hence the need to promote active participation and involvement in all matters relating to human rights, using sport as a motivator to learn about them in training processes of children and young people and helping to ensure that education is durable thanks to its popularity.26

29. Sport is more than an isolated activity. It can be represented as an integrative bridge between education, culture, music and dance in order to strengthen the Olympic values.27 Physical activity should aim at children becoming acquainted with their culture and more respectful for diversity, tolerance, games rules and behavioural codes. It is significant that sports events in Cyprus are organized to bring together Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot children.28

30. In primary education, sports have a profound effect on children, the development of their skills and the promotion of gender equality.29

31. Promoting peace culture, aiming to prevent vandalism and violence during sport events, particularly in football stadiums, calls for continuous and active action by all stakeholders. An important reference is the UNESCO International Charter of Physical Education and Sport which seeks to combat these human rights violations.30

E. Sport as a tool for advancing civil society

32. Sport does not need a language, but only the human capacity, irrespective of the different nationalities, religions and ideas. It can form the cornerstone to combine states and human society.31 Sport should be conceived as a tool for dialogue, fraternity and respect. It

22 Response of Russian Federation.

23 General Assembly resolution 67/17.

24 Response of France.

25 Response of Children 1st.

26 Response of Spain.

27 Response of Colombia.

28 Response of Cyprus.

29 Response of Saudi Arabia.

30 Response of Peru.

31 Response of Saudi Arabia.

has often been the only way to find the path for dialogue between divided communities. It allows creating synergies between public and private sectors in vulnerable areas worldwide in a concrete and effective manner, and can engage international corporations by making them aware of their social and local responsibility.32

33. Certain alliances between civil society, private enterprises, international organizations and national institutions for the promotion of sport, including those focusing on children, youth, the elderly and persons with disabilities deserve to be recognized.

F. Sport and combating all forms of discrimination and racism

34. One of the distinctive features of the Olympic Charter is to oppose all forms of discrimination.

35. In sports, any type of discrimination is prohibited, such as based on race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, belonging to national minority, property, disability, birth or other status. Besides, illegal migration and the financial crisis are feeding sources for racist ideas inside society and can therefore be brought to sport.

36. The Olympic Ideal envisages a society without any discrimination. It seeks to develop sincere understanding, cooperation and friendship between people and to set up a unique and shining example: gaining laurels through fair competition on an equal footing.33

37. The best way to combat all forms of discrimination is education, especially for young generation who can be used to respect human rights thought the Olympic principles of friendship, respect and excellence.34 While the respect of the Olympic Movement values could lead to overcome all forms of discrimination,35 an international academic debate continues on the real benefits of promoting these values. Critical scholars argue that “athletes who are co-opted by the “educational outreach” branch of the Olympic industry as role models, risk entrenching sexism, racism, and other discriminatory systems that they may be hoping to challenge”.36

38. Sport can combat social barriers, promote communication about gender discrimination and contribute to bringing men and women closer together to enhance social cohesion.37

39. The adoption of certain protocols has contributed to combating discrimination, such as handshakes between players, anti-discrimination banners in athletic fields, international athletic conferences and laws providing penalties for all forms of discrimination.38

32 Response of Spain.

33 Response of China.

34 Response of Greece.

35 Response of Mauritania.

36 Helen Jefferson Lenskyj, Olympic Industry Resistance: Challenging Olympic Power and Propaganda.

SUNY Series on Sport, Culture and Social Relations. Albany: State University of New-York. 2008, p. 77.

37 Response of Cote d’Ivoire.

38 Response of Saudi Arabia.

G. Business, public-private partnerships on human rights and sport

40. Labour, employment, health and safety in sport activities management require that employment standards as expressed in the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) Fundamental Conventions are met by suppliers (including any sponsors who provide goods or services), along with, where appropriate, other local initiatives. ILO Conventions set out a “social floor” in the world of employment, and provide for the elimination of all forms of compulsory or forced labour and the effective abolition of child labour. Accountability and transparency, and complaint mechanisms guarantee the inadmissibility of human rights abuses of licensees, including child labour, excessive working hours, and abuses of health and safety laws in the supply chains.39 Some researchers call for social responsibility to become a pillar of the Olympic Movement and argue that if future Olympic Games and the Olympic movement in general wish to claim an authentic legacy, this must be demonstrated by accessible housing, tenants’ rights, freedom of assembly, a free media, unrestricted public use of public spaces, and the protection of children and young people from Olympic propaganda.40

41. The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human rights can contribute to the promotion of human rights during the management of sport events, but they cannot avoid negative human rights impacts. However, if implemented from the outset of the life-cycle of mega sporting events, the UN Guiding Principles can reaffirm state duties to protect individuals from rights abuses involving non-state actors. In addition, they can offer a process to mitigate and effectively manage business-related human rights risks.41 In this respect strong not-for-profit partnerships and sponsorships could be required to accumulate additional revenues to support sport activities in schools and universities.

H. Incorporating sport to conflict-prevention activities and peace building

42. The potential of sports is often described as a tool to overcome humanitarian crises and conflict and post-conflict situations, and to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals and create a better world.42 The greatest challenge for a country in disturbances or internal conflict is a dialogue or signature of a peace agreement with actors in the armed conflict. Because sports promote rapprochement and helps reduce the levels of violence, recreational programs and sports games have become a tacit truce in some regions where there is armed conflict. Several programs have been launched too assist victims of the conflict and the children, and young people involved. Coexistence and Peace Programs complete this work by means of recreational training and sports training in order to strengthen relations of coexistence among children and youth, and also to prevent and mitigate the effects of violence.43

43. Sport can promote peace through the competition of athletes of enemy countries.44 The fact that citizens of countries at war or conflict can meet others in an environment of peace and tranquillity is very positive and helps break taboos which have been the source of

39 Striving for Excellence: Mega-Sporting Events and Human Rights. Institute for Human Rights and

Business. October 2013, London.

40 Helen Jefferson Lenskyj, Olympic Industry Resistance: Challenging Olympic Power and Propaganda.

SUNY Series on Sport, Culture and Social Relations. Albany: State University of New-York. 2008, p. 149–152.

41 Response of ECPAT and Terre Des Hommes.

42 Response of Spain.

43 Response of Colombia.

44 Response of Mauritania.

many conflicts.45 In the current peace process and in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals, sports play a relevant role which is directly linked to poverty reduction, inclusion and equality of opportunities. In this process, the media can take an essential part for the common goal of peace.46 Practice of sport and its impressive attracting power have allowed peoples living in high-risk areas or rivalry zones to meet at diverse sport activities through several programmes. This has increased socialization without violent confrontations and has contributed to acceptation and tolerance, favouring social cohesion.47

44. In post-conflict societies, the use of sport and the values of the Olympic Movement can offer an alternative life model and an outlet for the energy of youth, life training through rules, respect for one’s opponent and tolerance of difference. In non-post-conflict societies the first step is to tolerate the specific characteristics of others, respect their human rights and defend them when needed. The next step is to enhance cross-cultural exchange and teach the young generation to eliminate the causes of conflict like sex discrimination and marginalization of social groups for cultural reasons. Sport can help educate people about these values, especially youth.48 Sport also helps eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, promotes gender equality, reduces child mortality, improves maternal health and develops a global partnership for development.49

45. Sports play an important role in promoting international relations among peoples and open up the field of competition between amateur and professional athletics. Exchanging visits away from the political conflicts lead to the expression of love and cooperation and thus help politicians to solve a lot of problems. Moreover, athletes are considered as ambassadors of peace, cooperation and friendship between the peoples through their participation at local and international levels.50

46. Sports can also advance the cause of peace by bridging social, economic and cultural divides and building a sense of shared identity. It is important for States to cooperate with IOC and the International Paralympic Committee to use sport as a tool to promote peace, dialogue and reconciliation in areas of conflict during and beyond the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.51

I. Media, sport and human rights

47. The media is a critical stakeholder and has an essential role in the promotion of human rights in as far as information dissemination is concerned. Because it has the power to shape public opinion, it can illustrate how sport can translate into respect for human rights and promote social cohesion and acceptance of diversity.52 Media use mass communication tools during commentaries of football and other sporting events and can easily disseminate human rights promotion messages during such events.53 Moreover, the mass media could play a pivotal role in either encouraging or discouraging human rights in sport. The sentimental reporting has a negative impact, while factual reporting increases

45 Response of Ignasi Grau.

46 Response of Colombia.

47 Response of Guatemala.

48 Response of Greece.

49 Response of the Religious Freedom Youth Network (RFYN), India.

50 Response of Saudi Arabia.

51 General Assembly resolution 66/5.

52 Response of Cyprus.

53 Response of the Malawi Human Rights Commission.

respect for human rights and hence contributes to their promotion. The media has an important role in demonstrating the clear benefits of sport, not only in the area of health, but regarding social cohesion.54 Cooperation between the public and the media’s role in the protection of human rights is at a very high level. Media gives a fair coverage of every violation of the rights of athletes and also broadcasts programmes to educate people.55 The media as an influential actor spreads social responsibility through sport and promotes massive social mobilization as regards its practice. It is argued that sports event should thus be covered by more television channels and national newspapers. In this way, they would be able to highlight the requirements for a culture of peace, such as fair game, cooperation and respect for the opponent.56 Media can strengthen human rights through the exposure of all levels of sport, moderating obsession and highlighting minority sports, sports played by women, and sports performed by persons with disabilities.57

48. Spreading knowledge about physical fitness, broadcasting sporting events and reporting on public figures in sports encourages viewers to appreciate high-level matches and sportsmanship. Disseminating knowledge of sports and the Olympic Games helps enhance cooperation, the understanding of friendship and enterprising spirit. It is important to work to improve friendship and communication between athletes and trainers from different countries or regions. Launching advertising campaigns to promote human rights, sometimes with the assistance of star athletes, is intended to raise awareness in society, to increase accessibility and to encourage greater inclusion of disadvantaged groups.58 Some programmes do this by hosting members of the public and jurists who condemn cases of racial discrimination or intolerance, whether by athletes, judges, or audiences, in order to raise the level of awareness of human rights among the public.59

49. The media play a very important role in the promotion and popularization of sport, and in shaping the needs of the population with regard to everyday sport practices and healthy living. It is the media which have made possible the globalization of sports. They act as an amplifier for actions and sports policies, both positive and negative, and have therefore become a powerful tool both for and against the promotion of human rights through sport.60 The media aims to encourage governments to impose more transparency and accountability in the sports system. The media also expose human rights violations, provide an arena for different voices to be heard and offer a significant opportunity for the promotion of peace through sports and the Olympics and play a vital role in the creation of a friendlier society and more peaceful world.61

50. The media have made sport attractive to business, thereby turning it into a huge industry and helping to launch new mass sport trends. The modern media promotes outstanding sportsmen, provides funding, and fulfils humanitarian, educational and other support objectives.

51. Misleading and false information can have an adverse effect on the promotion of human rights in sport. Incorrect information often circulates in certain countries, where athletes and fans may take it for fact. This could give rise to violence and infringe the rights

54 Response of Argentina.

55 Response of Azerbaijan.

56 Response of Guatemala.

57 Response of Children 1st.

58 Response of RAMH – Recovery across Mental Health.

59 Response of Saudi Arabia.

60 Response of Spain.

61 Response of RFYN – Religious Freedom Youth Network, India.

of sporting adversaries. The public should be educated on the prevention of the spread of false information without knowing its consequences.

52. The racist comments and slander which are widespread during sport games and sometimes in the Olympic Games may occur either deliberately or involuntarily as a result of loss of temper and may contribute to the erosion of the rights of others during the Games. To avoid such negative outbursts it is important to adopt and implement rigorous and effective disciplinary measures to preserve the rights of athletes and promote human rights in sports. It is not enough that victims are to use only legal procedures, which are too long-winded to allow them to assert their rights or obtain compensation.

53. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as ECPAT and Terre des Hommes work with traditional and digital media on awareness-raising initiatives, such as the “Don’t Look Away” campaign and the “Children Win” project, which highlight positive and negative effects of major sporting events on children.62

J. Sport and development, in particular in post-2015 development agenda

54. The ability of sport to promote self-belief alongside collective optimism makes it an ideal social development tool. All sport is based on respect for the rules and an equal respect for, and acceptance of, those who make and apply the rules. The Olympic focus on the harmonious development of humankind is echoed at every level from children’s street games to the highest levels of performance sport.63 Sport can promote sustainable development if accompanied by awareness of economic and environmental issues of international sport events and measures to address them.64

55. The Olympic Games have the capacity to boost economic development. Hosting the Olympic Games can generate considerable indirect economic benefits.65 Sport promotes development in a country in a variety of ways. For example, building urban and rural public sports and exercise facilities for several disciplines in different regions contributes to economic dynamism.66 Sport has unique attributes that can contribute to the development process: its capacity as a communication platform, its ability to connect people and its popularity make it a development tool that can be used to meet high standards.67 Developmental strategies may be used to promote a country’s human resources as its main asset and capital.68 The first European Games, to be hosted by Azerbaijan in 2015, will be aiming to develop new sports infrastructure, to create new jobs, to provide visas, transportation and other services at the highest standards.69 Guatemala expects to host the Central-American and Caribbean Games in 2018, which would involve an estimated investment in infrastructure and organization of 450 million quetzals.70 After IOC approved the Olympic Movement’s Agenda 21 (for the 21st century), the London and Sochi Olympic Games were managed on a sustainable development basis.71

62 Response of ECPAT and Terre Des Hommes.

63 Response of Children 1st.

64 Response of France.

65 Response of China.

66 Responses of Argentina’s and China.

67 Response of Australia.

68 Response of Bahrain.

69 Response of Azerbaijan.

70 Response of Guatemala.

71 Response of Russian Federation.

56. Sport has the potential for creating employment, thereby increasing the revenue base of a country. The money raised through taxes can be used for different development projects such as the construction of roads, bridges, hospitals, water pumps etc. Sport can also be a mechanism through which youth talent can be exploited to create income generation for the individual and the community. Additionally, sport can provide a mechanism for keeping youth busy and engaged and thereby keeping them from idleness and vagrancy.72 Development programmes that use sport can facilitate the transfer of skills acquired in the field, in particular life skills and employability skills. Moreover, sport is a catalyst for economic development whereby all elements of the sports economy are interconnected, and simultaneously contribute to, and benefit from, its development, at the local level in particular, as a result of economies of scale.73

57. One of the most important factors in promoting the development of a country in different ways is to bring social change. The organization of sporting events in the country and the practice of various disciplines carry educational messages which can raise awareness on social issues such as HIV/AIDS, racial or gender discrimination, as these events and playing sport itself often attract people who do not normally respond to current inclusion policies. Institutional methods can thereby reach a much wider and diverse audience. Sport can also be used as an effective tool to promote school attendance, improve health, create jobs, help the economy, promote gender equality and increase environmental awareness, inter alia.74

58. Projects addressing life skills and teaching values contributing to constructive behaviours and respect for human rights are of essential importance. Under “Sports for Hope Programme” – by setting up Olympic Youth Development Centres (OYDCs) in developing countries, in particular, in Zambia and Haiti, IOC aims to provide young people and communities with positive sports and lifestyle opportunities, offer modern and professional training facilities to the athletes of the entire region, and spread the Olympic values of excellence, friendship and respect.75

59. IOC projects integrated into development projects and delivered jointly with appropriate specialized partners, adapted sports activities and sport at large can be effective tools for the socioeconomic development of communities.

60. Promoting policies to train teachers and qualified coaches to ensure good sports facilities and make them available for free access are fundamental factors for the development.76

K. Best practices, national experiences and models to follow

61. Opportunities to play, competitively or recreationally, are readily available to all either through education, community or commercial provision. Sport is increasingly being recognized as a vehicle for inclusion and cohesion. Its benefits, in terms of equality and social integration, of building self-esteem and resilience and its power to unite more than divide are gaining ever more political and apolitical credibility. Its contributions to the physical and mental well-being of individuals, communities and the nation are manifold and not to be ignored or undervalued, as has happened in recent times.

72 Response of Malawi Human Rights Commission.

73 Response of Chili.

74 Response of Peru.

75 Response of the International Olympic Committee.

76 Response of Peru.

62. The best practices arise from the collective body of sport lobbying and persuading politicians to coordinate the input of health, education and social services to address the inadequate emphasis that has plagued sport for so long. Improving collective focus on the wellbeing of children gives a strong base on which to build and make the most out of sport in order to to turn increasingly active children into lifelong active adults with all the societal benefits that that will provide.77

63. An example of the promotion of social inclusion and the concept of fair play and respect for opponents, especially among children and adolescents, is the “Get Ahead” programme in Colombia, which contributes to having a complete education and improving the quality of life of children and young people between 7 and 17 years, both at and outside school. The programme is supported by an incentives package for students and athletes, teachers and coaches, as well as educational institutions, municipalities and departments.78

64. The Government of Greece seeks to use sports as a tool to instil the Olympic values in the young generation, to help them gradually to build a culture of peace. It is there that Olympic values come together with the respect for human rights. The Ministry of Education also supports the development of innovative educational programmes that help to reach the young generation and educate them on how to uphold the Olympic ideals and respect for human rights in their everyday lives. The Imagine Peace Educational programme that was implemented in the school years 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 was aimed at teaching children the basic Olympic values, which encompass human rights. The Respecting Diversity Educational programme began this school year and is aimed at educating students, through the history and ideals of the Olympic Truce, on how to respect diversity and how to address such issues when they face them through the work of Olympians, who share with students their experiences of participating in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Truce Centre is organizing the Imagine Peace Youth Camp in Ancient Olympia, with participants from all over the world, brought together in a week-long camp to learn the principles and ideals of Olympism. Finally, the Government of Greece has endorsed a joint project between UNICEF Hellas and the International Olympic Truce Centre which promote the values of peace, tolerance and solidarity.79

65. In Guatemala, the 90-0 Programme (90 minutes with no violence) focuses on promoting peace culture, and is aimed at preventing vandalism and violence during sports events in football stadiums, as it is the most popular sport in Guatemala. It is supported by the Guatemalan Football Players Association and the National Football Federation of Guatemala. The Friday 24-0 prevention programme (24 hours with no violent deaths) is a programme launched in January 2014 by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Governance via the Third Deputy-Ministry for the Prevention of Violence and Crime. It covers 3,791 educational centres and is aimed at the coordination of sport and arts projects with a view conducive to an environment of peaceable coexistence within a human rights framework. It is also aimed at teaching students in public institutions behaviours against domestic violence, in schools and in their communities.

66. In view of the effects of sport on society, in Guatemala it is also used as a tool for social mobilization in support for a variety of causes (i.e. cancer, autism, peace and non- violence, HIV/AIDS, disabled persons) through different activities. Through these programmes, sport also plays a role as an alternative to harmful or high-risk activities.80

77 Response of Children 1st.

78 Response of Colombia.

79 Response of Greece.

80 Response of Guatemala.

67. In China, the National Health Plan, which was adopted in 1995, effectively integrates sport and sporting events with national development and national education policies. The Plan lists goals and targets, such as building 1,200,000 nationwide sport fields, thereby increasing the per capita sport field to 1.5 square meters. The Plan stipulates that all children should engage in physical exercise at least one hour daily while at school. China has 250 million students at school; thus the benefits of the plan are self-evident. The plan contains policies for vulnerable groups such as women, children and youth, the elderly, the disabled and national minorities. The plan also calls for the strengthening of research into and development of sport for persons with disabilities, the organization of cultural, physical and recreational activities specifically for children, with free access to public sports facilities.81

68. The Russian Federation promotes the establishment and development of national and international systems of Olympic education, and puts forward its model as best practice to follow, with 20 years of successful experience of partnership between government and non-government stakeholders.82

69. In France, the Ministry of Sport has a policy of prevention and combating behaviour that fails to respect human rights and sports values. The Minister of Sport aims to promote athletes’ awareness of the values of the Olympic ideal to prevent behaviour that would violate human rights. It also aims to promote sport as a privileged place with shared values such asrespect for tolerance, solidarity and fair play. In this regard, it has put in place three interministerial programmes:

(a) National Programme 2012–2014 against racism and anti-Semitism organized by the Comité interministeriel de lutte contre le racism et l’antisémitisme (CILRA);

(b) Government Programme 2014–2016 against sexual violence and discrimination;

(c) 4th Interministerial Programme for combating violence against women.

70. As the media play a very important role in communicating the Olympic ideal on human rights, significant awareness-raising with regard to the inclusion of women began with a programme of the Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA), which had a seat on the National Council of Sport. The Ministry of Sport provides grants for financial projects to increase broadcasting time for less popular sports with a view to encouraging the universalization of sport. To enhance respect for human rights, the Government of France has as one of its aims that every federation should draft a statute giving effect to the principles of the charter of ethics and conduct of the National Olympic Committee.83

71. In Cyprus special sports programmes are aimed at strengthening the relationship between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities and at facilitating communication.84

72. Long-term awareness-raising campaigns are important to involve major sport organizers in a sustainable way before, during and after major sporting events. ECPAT, Terre des Hommes, and the Oak Foundation have conducted important initiatives and media campaigns to combat the sexual exploitation of children in major sporting events. The “Don’t Look Away” campaign, led by ECPAT, provides for awareness-raising activities in the countries hosting major sports events, such as the 2014 Fédération

81 Response of China

82 Response of Russian Federation.

83 Response of France.

84 Response of Cyprus.

Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in Brazil. More importantly, the campaign also addresses the demand side. Both the European Union and the Government of Brazil have engaged in the campaign, thus acknowledging the serious challenges that major sports events represent in relation to the sexual exploitation of children.85

73. In addition, countries that have recently hosted major sports events, such as Brazil, Poland and South Africa, have deployed efforts to minimize the risks faced by children of falling victim to sexual exploitation. Those efforts include: the adoption of specific legislation, the monitoring of tourist and sports zones, the launching of awareness-raising campaigns, the creation of nationwide hotline services and the development of smartphone applications, regional cooperation, and the implementation of training programmes for law enforcement agencies.86

L. Challenges – exploring the complexities of using sport to promote human rights, preventing human rights abuses and detrimental practices related to sport

74. Like any social activity, sport may also have potentially negative side effects.87 The challenges to be faced are common for the whole world with a bit differences according to the culture. The main challenge is to raise the awareness of all sports actors as to the fact that they are a vector through which sports values can be promoted.88 The main question is how we can create a culture where people can endorse the Olympic ideals and make their way of life. A culture of this type, a culture of peace, can be achieved only through education.89

75. Cultural, political or military conflict and low economic development are significant challenges. In many countries, owing to the low level of economic development or a sudden increase in sports activities, not everybody has access to well-equipped sport facilities, and the which therefore affects the number of persons being able to actually practice sport. Hence, this number has yet to be improved. Furthermore, due to imbalanced development structures and imperfect rules and regulations, the gap in wealths as well as social conflicts have become constraints for people’s participation in sports.90 Otherwise, different perspectives and understanding of people may cause disagreements, and it is difficult to reach out to all segments of the country.91 A special focus should be placed on religious and cultural issues, with some countries preventing the practice of certain sports; gender issues, with women having limited or no opportunity to participate; and economic issues, with some countries not making quality sports accessible to large sectors of the population.92

76. All the challenges faced in promoting respect for human rights clearly indicate a crisis in the value system. Amongst them, central challenges have been identified in the

85 Response of Ms. Maalla M’jid, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child


86 Response of Ms. Maalla M’jid, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child


87 A/HRC/20/11.

88 Response of France.

89 Response of Greece.

90 Response of China.

91 Response of Bahrain.

92 Response of Anderson da Silva Souza, Professor de Educação Física, Governo do Estado do Rio de


politicization of sports and the claim that some western values are universal.93 Numerous incidents indicate the level of challenge faced in promoting human rights through sport and the Olympic ideal (the sporting boycott of South Africa during the Apartheid era, certain attitudes towards the track and field athlete Jesse Owens at the Berlin Olympics in 1936, the Munich massacre in 1972, in which members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group). Strategies should be developed to translate the symbolic role of sport in the promotion of human rights. There are also challenges to be faced with regard to the fight against corruption discrimination at all levels, unfair rules and regulations, and the promotion of values, in view of the hierarchy given to Western countries.94 It is natural that some observers highlight a lack of awareness and a low level of social education; political or financial instability, extreme national defence strategies that may be a cause of discrimination; customs and traditions that can impede the involvement or simply disturb the emotions of women, or people of a certain age group, race and background.95

77. Sport is also at risk from the trafficking of children in underdeveloped countries; young people who leave school early; doping; identity fraud in selections in the case of some young people who have already passed the age of eligibility; insufficient policies to promote the participation of women in sport, who still face difficulties in accessing competitions; and a lack of infrastructure in developing countries.96

78. The media have exerted a considerable influence on society. In the area of equal rights for women, the media have tended to emphasize the participation of men in sports, thereby ignoring the right of women to sport and recreational physical activity. In addition, the promulgation and promotion of sports and physical activities with a gender-equity approach amounts to little if the different needs of men and women are not actually addressed. It is of great importance that sport in any country is “democratic” to make it accessible to everyone. It is here that the contribution of the media can be most helpful, in its broadcasting of sport-related programmes and events, aimed at a broad and diverse population , constituting of people who are all rights-holders.97

79. Among the main challenges faced by sport are a lack of the funds required for the promotion of sport activities, especially for vulnerable groups and disabled children,98 the difficulties associated with building sports infrastructure, especially for the expensive activities that cannot be practised by all, and, clearly, doping.99 Generally, the provision of sport facilities remains an acute problem, although several inter-institutional alliances have been set up to allow access for a wider range of the population to the facilities of the educational centres. The budget allocation is also challenging, and it has forced prioritization in those areas where violent episodes are more frequent (“red zones”).100

80. The following problems related to discriminatory practices in sport are to be understood in an international context:

(a) The difference in the distribution of sports sponsorship by gender: it is estimated that with regard to participants at the Olympics, only 0.5 per cent of all commercial sponsorships are focused on female athletes;

93 Response of Ignasi Grau.

94 Response of the Religious Freedom Youth Network (RFYN), India.

95 Response of Qatar.

96 Response of Côte d’Ivoire.

97 Response of Chili.

98 Response of Cyprus.

99 Response of Mauritania.

100 Response of Guatemala.

(b) Media coverage for women’s sport is estimated at only 5 per cent. Teenage athletes therefore lack sufficient female role models for fair sports behaviour;

(c) The wage gaps related to gender inequality in sports; (d) The underrepresentation of women in leadership and management positions

in sports bodies.101

81. Factors such as illegal migration and the financial crisis, may in turn create racist ideas within society, which may thereafter be transferred to sport. Other obstacles refer to threats of sexual harassment and abuse in sport, and the poor representation of women in decision-making position.102 There are of course certain problems that might impede sport from promoting human rights. Some such obstacles include extreme nationalist sentiment, which might impinge on others’ rights and generate violence between athletes and fans, thereby increasing hatred among all parties, and eroding the rights of many. It is important to encourage the culture of friendship and tolerance, a culture which could flourish if people did not have prejudices about each other.

82. In recent decades, it has been shown that, far from being a competitive activity, sport is a multidimensional tool that substantially promotes quality of life and indirectly serves to bring nations together.

83. The main challenges that the international community faces as regards promotion of human rights through sport and the Olympic ideal are the inclusion of professional athletes in the Olympic games, the trading of athletes, the rapid introduction of technology in developing countries (and the consequent increase of the cost of sports activities) and the obligation to recruit and pay sponsors in order to take part in high-level sport events. These practices have deeply impacted the international sport situation, especially in the developing countries.103 One of the main challenges countries face in the promotion of human rights through sport is in supporting athletes without considering them as commodities, as is the case in the World Cup, where some games have allegedly been rigged.104 The rights of athletes are sometimes at stake due to the exploitation faced by others. In many regions in the world, especially in Europe and the Middle East, athletes are treated like goods when they are sold from one club to another; although the word “sell” does not appear in the deals, the conditions involved treating players like goods. Moreover, the deals struck with clubs are mostly arranged by third parties who work as middlemen. In certain instances, while the negotiations for deals are in progress, the athletes may become the victims of human traffickers.

84. Another concern relates to the lack of a human rights code of conduct. For instance, in Asia, the largest and important Asian sport confederation is the Asian Football Confederation, which was established in 1954 in the Philippines and whose headquarters are currently located in Malaysia. It is one of the six confederations which make up FIFA. The current President of the Confederation is Shaikh Salman Bin Ebrahim Al-Khalifa, a Bahraini. The Confederation has not been involved in any serious human rights violations or abuses in the past that have been reported; however there have been a few accusations which cannot be substantiated. With the advancement of issues of a human rights nature in sport, it is important that there should be a human rights code of conduct for all affiliated members of the Confederation, as a preventive measure for any future human rights

101 Response of Spain.

102 Response of Cyprus.

103 Response of Cuba.

104 Response of the Nicaraguan national human rights institution, the Procuraduría para la Defensa de los

Derechos Humanos de la República de Nicaragua (PDDH).

violations. A code of conduct encompassing all federations under FIFA could be developed, enabling a culture of human rights to flourish within the members of the Confederation, which would strengthen respect for human rights in sport in general.

85. A lot of focus has been placed on competitive sports. However, we should also not disregard the importance of promoting non-competitive sports, or sports which do not produce opponents, sports with a collective and supportive nature, sports that do not have a winner and a loser.105

86. Noteworthy also are some concerns over the use of outdated coaching methods which are hierarchical and confrontational. This is by no means universal but still presents an issue. Meanwhile, structures like Winning Scotland are bringing a new and inclusive approach to coaching techniques.

87. The behaviour of parents and caretakers on the touchline, lack of equal access to sports facilities and training times are also disturbing. This often excludes young people from playing and participating.106

88. Major sports events, such as the Olympic Games, can put children at a greater risk of becoming victims of sexual exploitation, with the arrival of thousands of additional tourists in a festive environment, thus increasing the number of potential abusers. Countries that have recently hosted major sports events, such as Brazil, Poland and South Africa, have deployed efforts to minimize the risks faced by children of falling victim to sexual exploitation. It is important to take stock of these recent efforts, good practices and lessons learned, in order to minimize risks for vulnerable children. Through comprehensive and sustainable child protection strategies, ethical and responsible sports events can be developed.107

III. Recommendations

A. National legislation and executive practice

1. Strengthen existing legislation on the promotion and development of sport;

2. Adopt specific legislation regarding the prohibition of sexual exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse in sport, and the use of doping;

3. Guarantee constant safeguards against discrimination; racism; extreme nationalist sentiment; violence in sport; unlawful influence on decision-making during competitions and other sports events; and the discrediting of, or undermining confidence in, the apolitical and autonomous nature of sport and sports federations;

4. Provide access to sport at the national level, regardless of gender, race, religion, social status, etc.;

5. Encourage States to continue and to increase efforts at all levels to combat the sexual exploitation of children at major sports events, sexual harassment and abuse in sport, and the use of doping.

105 Response of Frederico P.P.M. Salmi.

106 Response of Children 1st.

107 Response of Najat Maalla M’jid, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and

child pornography.

B. Programme support

1. Use coherent, sustainable and integrated sport strategies and programmes to advance peace, development, diversity, tolerance, fairness, mutual respect, human understanding, dialogue, reconciliation, the spirit of competition and gender equality, and to combat discrimination, racism, social exclusion and marginalization;

2. Develop sports and leisure programmes, highlighting the importance of ethical and moral values,108 and raising awareness and understanding of human rights and the Olympic ideal as a means to advance the cause of peace, promote development and combat all forms of discrimination;

3. Invite States, national and international sports organizations, in cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR) and IOC, to reflect on the design of models for cooperation with IOC and the International Paralympic Committee to use sport as a tool to promote peace, dialogue and reconciliation in areas of conflict or disturbance during and beyond the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, in particular by observing the Olympic Truce;

4. Develop special programmes to provide more opportunities for persons with disabilities to contribute to the expansion of mass sport activities, to encourage high performance in sporting events, to engage more children and young persons, women and girls and elderly persons in sport and to facilitate access and a barrier-free environment;

5. Develop coherent and integrated policies to prevent and combat the trafficking of children in underdeveloped countries, vandalism and violence during sports events, behaviour that is disrespectful of human rights which do not take into account the right of women to sports and recreational physical activity;

6. Draw up and implement codes for fans who watch and/or comment on matches;

7. Disseminate information on sports fixtures and locations to people in all geographical areas;

8. Include meaningful provisions in current sports programmes providing for the use of existing, and the creation of new, alliances between civil society, private enterprise, international organizations and national institutions for the promotion of sport and recreational physical activities;

9. Make values education part of the preparation of athletes. The development of values should be cross-cutting, creating a balanced “participation is more important than winning” mentality, respect for opponents, punctuality and solidarity. Those values will ultimately be reflected in the lifestyle of athletes, who will disseminate them throughout society;

10. Substantially increase female participation in high-performance sports;

11. Publicize and promote sports and physical activities with a gender-equity approach, taking fully into account the different needs of men and women;

108 Response of Peru.

12. Promulgate new types of collective and inclusive sports;

13. Monitor tourist and sports zones;

14. Launch awareness-raising campaigns to promote the values of sport, human rights and the Olympic movement;

15. Implement training programmes for stakeholders;

16. Involve, and build partnerships with, key stakeholders, such as IOC and host countries, in order to implement child protection strategies and to strengthen cooperation among various stakeholders to mitigate harm;

17. Mitigate risk factors and develop ethical, responsible and child protective sports and tourism through coherent, sustainable and integrated child protection strategies. Preventive strategies should include the incorporation of a child and human rights impact assessment in the bidding criteria of major sports organizers;109

18. Instil values of friendship, fair play, solidarity, excellence, discipline, etc.;

19. Contribute to the inclusion of people with disabilities by showcasing their abilities;

20. Organize special targeted competitions for ethnic sports, designed to demonstrate ethnic traditions, practices and customs;

21. Develop projects addressing life skills and teaching values: contributing to constructive behaviours and respect for human rights are of essential importance;

22. Empower women and girls in particular by showcasing their abilities;

23. Assist with social inclusion and the integration of marginalized groups;

24. Help combat obesity, chronic diseases, HIV and AIDS and instil healthy behaviours generally;

25. Promoting universality, uniting people, a culture of peace, building trust and bridges between groups in conflict;

26. Build self-esteem and other important life-skills and values for children and youth;

27. Help children and youth to recover from trauma;

28. Make use of sports programmes to create job opportunities and develop skills;

29. Widen the possibilities of sports programmes to motivate children to enrol in and attend school and to help improve educational performances;

30. Take into account the requirements for the socioeconomic development of communities in planning sport events and recreational physical activity;

109 Response of Ms. Maalla M’jid, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child


31. Facilitate communication through special sports programmes, in particular to strengthen relationships between different communities and ethnicities.

C. Combating discriminatory practices in sport

1. Protect athletes’ rights by means of a universal written code of conduct in which their rights are clearly set out, to prevent any exploitation;

2. Draw up a human rights code of conduct for all affiliated members of confederations, including fans’ associations, as a preventive measure with regard to human rights violations;

3. Work for fair and equal distribution of sports sponsorships by gender;

4. Counter the use of outdated coaching methods;

5. Seek the prohibition of the trading of athletes, whereby they are treated as commodities;

6. Increase the presence of women in decision-making positions, thereby countering the underrepresentation of women in leadership and management positions in sports bodies;

7. Overcome the lack of equal access to sports and recreational physical activity facilities and training times;

8. Increase implementation of anti-corruption regulations.

D. Media

1. Help increase media coverage for women’s sport;

2. Foster more transparency in sports and recreational physical activity;

3. Contribute to raising the motivation of sportsmen by focusing on the importance of participation as opposed to a “winning is all that matters” mentality;

4. Mobilize the efforts of all stakeholders to counter the racist and politicized comments and slander which are widespread during sports matches and sometimes at the Olympic Games and which discredit the values of sport, including integrity, teamwork, excellence, respect, tolerance, fair play and friendship.

E. Education

1. Use curriculum planning for education programmes to support the right to play sport in the promotion of the spirit of friendship, mutual respect, solidarity and fair play;

2. Advance quality physical education in sports curricula, as a way to significantly contribute to the diffusion of the Olympic values and ideals among youth;

3. Promote the establishment and development of national and international systems of Olympic education by means of best practice models.